From the Tsarism to the New Economic Policy. The Regulation Problems of the Multistructure Peasant Economy of Soviet Russia in the Discourse of the State Power

Tyumen State University Herald. Humanities Research. Humanitates


2017, Vol. 3. №1

From the Tsarism to the New Economic Policy. The Regulation Problems of the Multistructure Peasant Economy of Soviet Russia in the Discourse of the State Power

For citation: Nosova N. P. 2017. “From The Tsarism to the New Economic Policy. The Regulation Problems of the Multistructure Peasant Economy of Soviet Russia in the Discourse of the State Power”. Tyumen State University Herald. Humanities Research. Humanitates, vol. 3, no 1, pp. 191-209. DOI: 10.21684/2411-197X-2017-3-1-191-209

About the author:

Natalia P. Nosova, Dr. Sci. (Hist.), Professor, Department of State and Municipal Administration, Tyumen State University;


This article attempts to identify the specifics of the multistructure peasant economies management from the point of view of studying the features of the paradigm shaping — a model of relationship with the majority of the population that does not form political background. First of all, the problem is considered within the scope of the methodology of political discourse as the analysis of the explicit and implicit political meanings of the emergence of a new power.

The analysis reveals that both sectors of the peasant economy — individual and socialist — were developed during the entire period under investigation. However, the opportunities for their development were not equal. A “military-communist” management system was formed in the extreme conditions of the revolution and civil war. It employed forced methods, dictated by circumstances, and elements of a socialist assault. The search for a compromise with the peasantry led to a revival of commodity-money relations and the market at the end of the Civil War. Success in revitalizing and restoring agriculture was obvious.

The material, which is analyzed in the article, shows that by the end of the 1920s the state returned to the measures of the most extreme regulation of the individual peasant economy and prepared a “decisive throw” towards its destruction. The future was mistakenly associated with large-scale industrial production, including agriculture. Small-scale farming was declared as non perspective.

As a result, these measures led to the nationalisation of all spheres of the peasant economy, transition from the emerging market relations to the state contracting, forcing the socialist sector development in the absence of economic and psychological readiness of the peasants, who constituted the majority of the population.


  1. Danilov V. P. 1971. “Osnovnye itogi i napravleniya izucheniya sovetskogo krest'yanstva” [The Main Results and Directions of the Study of the Soviet Peasantry]. In: Problemy agrarnoy istorii sovetskogo obshchestva, pp. 212-246. Moscow: Nauka. 
  2. Ekonomicheskaya zhizn' [Economic Life]. 1920. October 21.
  3. Figurovskaya N. K. 1978. Agrarnye problemy v sovetskoy ekonomicheskoy literature 20-kh gg. [Agricultural Problems in the Soviet Economic Literature of the 1920s]. Moscow: Nauka.
  4. Figurovskaya N. K. 1983. Razvitie agrarnoy teorii v SSSR. Konets 20-kh — 30-e gg. [Development of the Agricultural Theory in the USSR. The Late 1920s-30s]. Moscow: Nauka.
  5. Georgadze M. P. (ed.). 1959. S"ezdy Sovetov Soyuza SSR, soyuznykh i avtonomnykh Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik: sbornik dokumentov (1917-1936 gg.) [Congresses of Soviets of the USSR, Union and Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics: a collection of documents (1917-1936)] in 3 vols. Vol. 1. S"ezdy Sovetov RSFSR i Avtonomnykh Respublik RSFSR. 1917-1922 gg. [Congresses of Soviets of the RSFSR and Autonomous Republics of the RSFSR. 1917-1922]. Moscow: Gosyurizdat.
  6. Gladkov I. A. (ed.). 1976. Istoriya sotsialisticheskoy ekonomiki SSSR [History of the Socialist Economy of the USSR] in 7 vols. Vol. 1 Sovetskaya ekonomika v 1917-1920 [The Soviet Economy in 1917-1920]. Moscow: Nauka; USSR Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics.
  7. Gorodetskiy E. N. 1981. Sovetskaya istoriografiya Velikogo Oktyabrya (1917 — seredina 30-kh godov). Ocherki [Soviet Historiography of the Great October Revolution (1917 —  Middle of the 30s). Essays]. Moscow: Nauka.
  8. Gorodetskiy E. N. 1982. Istoriograficheskie i istochnikovedcheskie problemy Velikogo Oktyabrya. 1930- 1960-e gg. Ocherki [Historiographic and Source Study Problems of the Great October Revolution. 1930-1960s. Essays]. Moscow: Nauka.
  9. Knipovich B. N. 1921. Ocherk deyatel'nosti Narodnogo Komissariata Zemledeliya za tri goda (1917-1920) [Essay on the Activities of the People’s Commissariat of Agriculture for Three Years (1917-1920)]. Moscow: Gosizdat. 
  10. Konanerova E. N. 2007. “Mezhdunarodnye nauchnye proekty po agrarnoy istorii Rossii (konets XX-XXI vv.)” [International Scientific Projects on the Agricultural History of Russia (Late XX-XXI Centuries)]. Cand. Sci. (Hist.) diss. abstract. Penza.
  11. Kondrashin V. V. 2009. Krest'yanstvo Rossii v grazhdanskoy voyne: k voprosu ob istokakh stalinizma [The Peasantry of Russia in the Civil War: The Question of the Stalinism Origins]. Moscow: ROSSPEN.
  12. Lewin M. 1974. Political Undercurrents in Soviet Economic Debates: From Bukharin to the Modern Reformers. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  13. Manevich V. E. 1989. “Istoriya razvitiya sovetskoy ekonomicheskoy mysli v 20-e gody (osnovy kontseptsii)” [The History of the Development of Soviet Economic Thought in the 1920s (The Basis of the Concept)]. Voprosy ekonomiki, no 10, pp. 46-74.
  14. Nosova N. P. 1993. Upravlyat' ili komandovat'? Gosudarstvo i krest'yanstvo Sovetskoy Rossii (1917-1929) [To Manage or to Command? State and Peasantry of Soviet Russia (1917-1929)]. Moscow: Moscow State University.
  15. Okuda H. (ed.). 2002. History of the Russian Peasantry in the 20th Century, vol. 1. Tokyo.
  16. Okuda H. (ed.). 2004. History of the Russian Peasantry in the 20th Century, vol. 2. Tokyo.
  17. Pogudin V. I. 1975. Put' sovetskogo krest'yanstva k sotsializmu. Istoriograficheskiy ocherk [The Way of the Soviet Peasantry to Socialism. Historiographical Sketch]. Moscow: Mysl'.
  18. RGAE (Rossiyskiy gosudarstvennyy arkhiv ekonomiki). F. 478. Op. 1. D. 10.
  19. RGAE. F. 478. Op. 1. D. 252.
  20. RGAE. F. 478. Op. 11. D. 31. D. 40.
  21. RGASPI (Rossiyskiy gosudarstvennyy arkhiv sotsial'no-politicheskoy istorii). F. 17. Op. 85. D. 163.
  22. RGASPI. F. 17. Op. 85. D. 338.
  23. RGASPI. F. 17. Op. 85. D. 340.
  24. Rogalina N. L. 2010. Vlast' i agrarnye reformy v Rossii XX veka [Power and Agricultural Reforms in Russia in the 20th Century]. Moscow: Entsiklopediya Rossiyskikh dereven'.
  25. Samara University. 2014. Agrarnaya istoriya XX veka. Istoriografiya i istochniki [Agricultural History of the 20th Century. Historiography and Sources]. Samara: Izd Samara University.
  26. Shanin T. 1972. The Awkward Class: Political Sociology of Peasantry in a Developing Society: Russia 1910-1925. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  27. Shanin T. 1997. Revolyutsiya kak moment istiny. 1905-1907-1917-1922 [Revolution as a Moment of Truth. 1905-1907-1917-1922]. Moscow: Ves' mir.
  28. Stenogramma zasedaniya Agrarnogo instituta Komakademii 17.XII.1928 [Record of the Meeting of the Agricultural Institute of the Commissariat December 17, 1928]. RGASPI. F. 17. Op. 85. D. 338. L. 79.
  29. Tambov State Technical University, Moscow Higher School of Social and Economic Sciences. 1996. Proceedings of the Conference “Krest'yane i vlast'”, pp. 4-23. Moscow: Tambov.
  30. Telitsyn V. L. 2003. “Bessmyslennyy i besposhchadnyy”. Fenomen krest'yanskogo buntarstva. 1917-1922 gg. Moscow: NDP Media.
  31. Vestnik Narodnogo komissariata zemledeliya. 1919. No 1.