Release:2021, Vol. 7. № 1 (25)
About the author:Odon B. Dashinamzhilov, Cand. Sci. (Hist.), Researcher of the Agrarian and Demographic History Sector, Institute of History SB RAS (Novosibirsk); Odon@bk.ru
The study of fertility and mortality in the regions where Soviet territorial-production complexes were formed is of great interest. Such studies make it possible to answer the question in which direction the demographic dynamics changed in the conditions of profound economic and social changes that were taking place in them at that time. Demographic processes in the Tyumen region during the formation of the West Siberian oil and gas complex interested many researchers. However, in their works, the main attention was paid to migration movements, the formation of labor collectives. Much less attention has been paid to the analysis of natural movement. In addition, it was produced using general indicators that have a high error. In this regard, it is still not clear how much the birth rate and mortality rate of city dwellers actually changed. The aim of the article is to study the dynamics of the total fertility rate and life expectancy in the 1960s. in urban settlements of the Tyumen region. For solving it, there were used the method of conditional generation, historical-comparative and historical-genetic methods.
The study revealed that initially in 1958-1959 fertility and mortality of the urban population were approximately at the level of Western Siberia. After the beginning of the Western Siberian Oil And Gas Complex formation in the social-class structure, there was a slight increase in the share of workers, in the system of urban settlement the role of the regional center decreased. As a result, the birth rate among the townspeople of the Tyumen region in 1969-1970 became the highest among the West Siberian regions. The harsh climate, low rates of construction of housing and social infrastructure facilities, poorly organized medical services, the development of industries characterized by high injuries, an increase in alcohol consumption have led to the fact that life expectancy in the region has become the lowest among the Western Siberian regions. All of these changes in reproduction occurred taking into account the fact that the share of the northern regions in 1970 still did not exceed one third of the urban population of the region.
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