Release:2020, Vol. 6. № 4 (24)
About the authors:Irina V. Skipina, Dr. Sci. (Hist.), Professor, Department of Documentation and Records Management, University of Tyumen; firstname.lastname@example.org; ORCID: 0000-0001-7061-1403
This article studies a topical problem: the history of Tyumen “Stalinkas” in the 1930s-1950s and the everyday urban life of their inhabitants. The authors aim to show the process of pre- and post-war construction of residential buildings to provide apartments for Tyumen residents. Housing is considered as a necessary component of human activity.
The object of the study is an architectural ensemble of pre- and post-war Tyumen, which reflected the realities of the 1930-1950s. It was a time when slogans of equality were proclaimed, the authorities said that they would provide the same opportunities for life and self-realization for all Soviet citizens. However, the houses in the center of the city with spacious apartments were built for the Soviet elite, and small apartments of poor quality on the outskirts of the city — for workers. Housing for workers was located far from educational, leisure, and retail outlets.
Using the new documentary data, introduced for the first time into academic circulation, and taking into account a comprehensive approach to the study of the topic, the authors show the impact of housing development on urban daily life. “Stalinkas” are considered a legacy of the era of the cult of personality, which allows studying people’s everyday life, taking into account their social stratification based on their life, housing, everyday practices, and opportunities to participate in urban life.
The results show that “Stalinkas” are not only our past, but also our present, they are a clear proof of the construction of a bright future, which has proven to be unattainable, and their construction stopped shortly after Stalin’s death. Further study of urban ordinariness and everyday practices of citizens will bring us closer to understanding the phenomenon of the “Soviet” as an essential part of Russian identity.
Brodel F. 1980. The Structures of Everyday Life: The Possible and the Impossible. Vol. 1. Moscow: Progress,. 623 pp. [In Russian]
Tyumen Region State Archive. F. 5. Op. 1. D. 470. [In Russian]
Tyumen Region State Archive. F. 698. Op. 1. D. 105. [In Russian]
Zubkova E. Yu. 2000. Postwar Soviet Society: Politics and Everyday Life in 1945-1953. Moscow: ROSSPEN. 229 pp. [In Russian]
Iskandarov M. M., Mikhaylov A. Yu. 2010. “The phenomenon of ‘stalinka’: research methodology”. Izvestiya Kazanskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitelnogo universiteta, no. 2 (14), pp. 14-19. Accessed 25 September 2020. https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/fenomen-stalinki-metodologiya-issledovaniya [In Russian]
Kruzhinov V. M., Sokova Z. N. 2015. “Industrial construction in tyumen during the first five-year plan (1928-1932)”. Tyumen State University Herald. Humanities Research. Humanitates, no. 2, pp. 134-139. [In Russian]
Lebina N. B. 1989. The Everyday Life of a Soviet City. Saint Petersburg: Letniy sad. 318 pp. [In Russian]
Mordvintseva A. V. 2007. “Urban environment of Tyumen: development in the post-war period (1945-1953)”. In: Historical Research in Siberia: Problems and Prospects, pр. 165-172. Novosibirsk: Parallel. [In Russian]
Mordvintseva A. V. 2010. “Post-war urban everyday life: Tyumen and Tyumen people in 1945-1953”. Cand. Sci. (Hist.) diss. abstract. Tyumen: University of Tyument. 25 pp. [In Russian]
Orlov I. B. 2015. Communal Country: The Formation of the Soviet Housing and Communal Services (1917-1941). Moscow: Higher School of Economics. Accessed 25 September 2020. https://www.rulit.me/books/kommunalnaya-strana-stanovlenie-sovetskogo-zhilishchno-kommunalnogo-hozya... [In Russian]
Orlov I. B. 2010. Soviet Everyday Life: Historical and Sociological Aspects of Formation. Moscow: Izdatelskiy dom Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki. 317 pp. [In Russian]
Polyakov Yu. A. 2000. “Man in everyday life (historical aspects)”. Otechestvennaya istoriya, no. 3, pp. 125-132. [In Russian]
Pushkareva N. L. 2004. “Subject and methods of studying the history of everyday life”. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie, no. 5, рp. 3-19. [In Russian]
Skipina I. V., Voloshanskaya O. S. 2001. “The ‘Housing Crisis’ in Tyumen. 1919-1921”. In: Slovtsovskie chteniya — 2001, pp. 68-70. Tyumen: TOKM. [In Russian]
Skochin A. A., Pashin S. S. 2013. “The role of housing construction in the formation of the living space of Tyumen residents in the mid-1950s — mid-1960s”. Tyumen State University Herald. History, no. 2, pp. 162-171. [In Russian]
USSR. CEC and SNK of the USSR. Resolution “On preserving the housing stock and improving the housing economy”. Adopted on 17 October 1937. In: Klusova M. G., Seglin B. (eds.). 1963. Collection of Housing Legislation of 1 July 1963. Moscow: Yuridicheskaya literatura. 315 pp. [In Russian]
Stroitelnaya gazeta. 1955. 7 September, p. 2. [In Russian]
Stroitelnaya gazeta. 1955. 11 February, p. 3. [In Russian]
Tyumenskaya pravda. 1955. 11 November, p. 1. [In Russian]
Tyumenskaya pravda. 1955. 20 November, p. 3. [In Russian]
Fokin A. A. 2017. “Communism Is Not Far Off”. Images of the Future in Power and the Population of the USSR at the Turn of the 1950-1960s. Moscow: Politicheskaya entsiklopediya. 223 pp. [In Russian]
2GIS. “Photo, 45 Respubliki St. (Tyumen)”. Accessed 19 September 2020). https://2gis.ru/tyumen/gallery/geo/1830223003783422/photoId/1829587371515573 [In Russian]
Wikimapia. “Photo, 58 Respubliki St. (Tyumen)”. Accessed 19 September 2020. http://wikimapia.org/12905859/ru/%D1%83%D0%BB-%D0%A0%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BF%D1%83%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%BA... [In Russian]