Release:2020, Vol. 6. № 3 (23)
About the author:Larisa Yu. Varentsova, Cand. Sci. (Hist.), Associate Professor, Department of Theory and History of State and Law, Nizhny Novgorod Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia; email@example.com
Throughout the 17th century, the Palace economy developed dynamically in the Royal fiefdoms, which by the middle — the second half of the 17th century were characterized by high profitability. The Palace lands provided the Romanov House with everything it needed. The components of the Palace economy included agriculture, fishing grounds, and manufacturing facilities. At the same time, the Royal manufactories were not numerous, the fishing grounds were not in all the sovereign’s fiefdoms, only agriculture dominated everywhere.
The relevance of this work lies in studying the historical experience of socio-economic and political development of the Russian state in the 17th century. The purpose of the article is to consider Palace agriculture in Russia in the 17th century.
The methodological basis of the study relies on the principles of historicism and scientific objectivity. The author has used the works by russian pre-revolutionary historians V. N. Tatishchev, S. M. Solovyov, and M. Baranovsky, as well as the works of researchers of the soviet and post-soviet periods S. I. Volkov, V. I. Buganov, V. A. Korostelev, and A. V. Topychkanov.
The novelty of the research consists in the introduction of new historical sources into scientific circulation. The source database consists of the unpublished office documents from the Armory chamber fund 396, the Palace department fund 1239 of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RGADA, Moscow), as well as from the rare handwritten and old-printed books fund of the Moscow state United art historical, architectural and natural landscape museum-reserve. Among the published sources, we can distinguish a group of office documents. These are census, parish, and expense books of orders of Secret Affairs and the Grand Palace. In addition, the author has used the historical and geographical materials of the 17th — early 18th century from the books of the Discharge Order and the memoirs by the german traveler A. Oleary.
The results show the place of Palace agriculture in the economy of the Tsar’s domain in Russia in the 17th century. The author has identified the main directions in the development of agriculture on the territory of the Palace fiefdoms. Having studied the attempt to modernize the Palace agriculture during the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and to use the best european experience, this research highlights the significance of the Secret Affairs Order, which was in charge of many agricultural objects in the second half of the 17th century; their geographical coordinates are indicated. The author reveals the main features of the development of Palace grain farming, horticulture, animal husbandry, poultry farming, and beekeeping. The examples of farming in some Tsar’s villages of the Moscow Region showcase the ways of providing labor for the main objects of agriculture in the Tsar’s domain.
The agricultural products from the Royal fiefdoms were intended for the Royal family. To a lesser extent, they were sent for sale on the domestic market. Different Royal fiefdoms specialized in particular fields. Namely, Izmailovo, Chashnikovo, Alekseevskoye, Stepanovskoye, Ekaterininskaya Grove, and Yermolino Palace villages near Moscow supplied rye, oats, wheat, hops, flax, and hemp. Grape, fruit, and mulberry orchards were bred in Chuguev, Astrakhan, Bryansk, and the Moscow Region. Russian and German specialists were involved in their service. The Palace villages Pachino, Alekseevskoe, Stepanovski, Ermolino, situated near Moscow, and the villages Lyskovo and Murashkino near Nizhny Novgorod were the centres of the Palace livestock. Tsar’s apiaryies were in Karpovka, Volnovsky, Kharkiv, Chuguyev, Olesinska, and Hotnichescom counties. Palace agriculture was served using the forced labor of palace peasants and posadsky people, soldiers, archers, while only small amounts of hired labor were involved.
Baranovsky M. 1914. Palace Economy for the Order of Secret Affairs. Kyiv: tipografiya Imperatorskogo Universiteta Svyatogo Vladimira. 38 pp. [In Russian]
Volkov S. I. 1959. Peasants of the Palace Estates of the Moscow Region in the Middle of the 18th Century. Moscow: Publishing House of the USSR Academy of Sciences. 261 pp. [In Russian]
The Palace Village of Izmailovo, Ancestral Fiefdom of the Romanovs. Currently the Nikolaev Izmailovo Military Alms-House. 1892. Tipografiya T. I. Gogen. 58 pp. [In Russian]
“The Cases of the Secret Order”. 1907. Vol. 21. P. 1. Russian Historical Library Published by the Imperial Archaeological Commission. Saint Petersburg: V Tipografii Bratyev Panteleevykh. 1755 pp. [In Russian]
Korostelev V. A. 2013. Skopin. Tsarist Fiefdom in the Second Half of the 17th — First Half of the 18th Century. Moscow: Sam Polygraphist. 302 pp. [In Russian]
Moscow State United Art Historical-Architectural and Natural-Landscape Museum-Reserve. F. Rare handwritten and old printed books. Cat. Part 1. A-1062, KP-1233. A handwritten book. Inventory of the Palace and Economic Institutions of S. Izmailov 8 March 1687 [In Russian]
Moscow State United Art Historical-Architectural and Natural-Landscape Museum-Reserve. F. Rare handwritten and old printed books. Cat. Part 1. A-1063, KP-1252. A handwritten book. Account book of the monetary Treasury 1676/1677. Account book of stocks 1676/1677. Account book of stocks 1676/1677 G. S. Izmailov. [In Russian]
Moscow State United Art Historical-Architectural and Natural-Landscape Museum-Reserve. F. Rare handwritten and old printed books. Cat. Part 1. A-1098, KP-78/1. A handwritten document. Column “Extract from the scribal books of the Moscow district letters and measures Stolnik I. M. Ofrosimov and podyachiy I. Vasiliev... Palace village Kolomenskoye and priselka Diakovsky 1674/1675-1676/1677”. [In Russian]
“Review of historical and geographical materials of the 17th and early 18th centuries, provided in the books of the Discharge order”. 1884. Description of Documents and Papers Stored in the Moscow Archive of the Ministry of Justice. Vol. 4, pp. 161-529. Moscow: Tipografiya L. F. Snegireva. [In Russian]
Olearius A. 2003. Description of a Trip to Muscovy. Translated from German by A. M. Lovyagina. Smolensk: Rusich. 480 pp. [In Russian]
“Inventory of the Izmailovsky Palace”. 1918. In: Zabelin I. E. Home Life of Russian Tsars in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Vol. 1, pp. 508-574. Moscow: Tovarishchestvo skoropechatni A. A. Levenson. [In Russian]
“Census book of documents of the order of Secret Affairs of 1676”. Russian Historical Library Published by the Imperial Archaeological Commission. Saint Petersburg: V Tipografii Bratyev Panteleevykh, 1907. Vol. 21, part 1, pp. 1-190. [In Russian]
“Order of the Grand Palace. Receipt and expense books”. 1883. In: Viktorov A. E. Description of Notebooks and Papers of Old Palace Orders in 1613-1725. Vol. 2, pp. 542-549. Moscow: Tipografiya M. P. Shchepina. [In Russian]
“Prikhod expenses books of the order of Secret Affairs”. 1904. In: Secret Order’s Business. Russian Historical Library Published by the Imperial Archaeological Commission. Vol. 23, part 3., pp. 393-1413. Saint Petersburg: Sinodalnaya tipografiya. [In Russian]
“The expenditure columns of the order of Secret Affairs”. 1904. In: Russian Historical Library Published by the Imperial Archaeological Commission. Vol. 23, part 3, pp. 1-393. Saint Petersburg: Synodal printing house. [In Russian]
Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts. F. 396. Op. 1. Part 36. D. 53158. February 1676. Painting of villages with villages and lands, iron, and salt factories and fisheries that were under the Secret Affairs Order. [In Russian]
Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts. F. 1239. Op. 1. D. 1362. Orders of the patrimonial office for estates and management of peasants belonging to the tsarevna Elizaveta Petrovna in 1736. [In Russian]
Solovyov S. M. 1962. History of Russia since Ancient Times: in 15 vols. Vol. 7, parts 13‑14. Moscow: Izdatelstvo sotsialno-ekonomicheskoy literatury. 726 pp. [In Russian]
Tatishchev V. N. 2010. “Brief economic notes to the village following notes”. In: Tatishchev V. N. Selected Works, pp. 249-267. Moscow: Rossiyskaya politicheskaya entsiklopediya (ROSSPEN). [In Russian]