Release:2018, Vol. 4. №2
About the author:Natalia V. Ryzhkova, Cand. Sci. (Hist.), Associate Professor, Department of Fine Arts and Artistic Culture, Udmurt State University (Izhevsk); email@example.com
This article analyzes the problem of the organization, construction, and operation of children’s charitable institutions: orphanages, shelters, homes for the homeless, and homes for widows with children — in the city of Sarapul in the 19th-20th century. The article is based on the documents of the State Archive of the Kirov Region, as well as the results of field research conducted by the author in 2012-2013.
The author has established that the role of patrons, mostly of the merchant class, is decisive in the device of children’s charities in Sarapul. The share of the merchant class in Sarapul at the end of the 19th — beginning of the 20th century in the composition of the population was not large, but dominated in the business environment, forming the capital.
Actively participating in a wide variety of phenomena of the public life of the city, merchants hired architects for the construction of new buildings of children’s institutions, gave away their homes for their establishment, and invested their capital (mainly interest on capital) in the content of future students. The author notes that, from an architectural point of view, these buildings did not conflict with the existing artistic ideals of the era, but had their own characteristics: they were less bulky, simpler in composition, and less representative compared with the capital buildings of a similar type.
The author shows the impact of these buildings on the shaping of the architectural look of the city, analyzes their stylistic and compositional features, as well as the artistic preferences of the customers. She also specifies and traces the stages of erecting various types of charitable children’s institutions.