Release:2017, Vol. 3. №4
About the authors:Sergey V. Bereznitsky, Dr. Sci. (Hist.), Professor, Department of Social Anthropology; Leading Researcher, Department of the History of Kunstkamera and 18th Century Russian Science, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (The Kunstkamera) of the RAS (St. Petersburg); email@example.com
This article presents the main categories of migrants in the Jewish Autonomous region in the late 20th — early 21st century. The Specifics of the development of modern migration processes in the Jewish Autonomous region (EAO) determine factors such as the remoteness of the region from the center of Russia, its border location, a special history of organization and development as a subject of the Russian Federation. The policy of attracting migrants to the region is determined not only by the government but also entrepreneurs. Their activities in this sphere are no less important than the adoption of state administrative decisions. Accordingly, it is a complex set of factors that forms the regional picture of labor migration on the socio-economic and socio-political environment, and which is not as predictable. Because the JAR is on the border with almost half a billion population of China, the decision of the migration, demographic and social issues is of strategic importance not only for the region, but also for the whole Russia.
To collect research materials, the authors used the following methods of field ethnography: observation, interviewing informants, fixing ethnographic data and documents of local authorities, culture institutions, and current archives.
The JAR population comprises a number of different categories of people: voluntary migrant labor, countrymen, students, tourists, visitors to relatives, and internally displaced persons (in most cases they are citizens of Ukraine). The authors note that the active processes of ethno-cultural differentiation in this field suggest an increase in variability of ethnic and cultural identities and, as a consequence, the need for better alignment of mechanisms of regulation of interethnic communications in recognition of the diversity of cultures. It has a significant impact on demographic and socio-economic situation in the field of migration, as it creates labor market, household daily life, and intergroup relations. Each separate category of migrants need adaptation or integration of different kinds. Therefore, the migration processes are chosen as the main aim for this publication.