School construction in the soviet far east in the 20-s of the twentieth century

Tyumen State University Herald. Humanities Research. Humanitates


2015, Vol. 1. №2(2)

School construction in the soviet far east in the 20-s of the twentieth century

About the author:

Natalia I. Senikh,
Competitor of the Department of Pedagogy of Far Eastern State University for Humanities (Khabarovsk)


In this article the author analyzes the local historical and educational experience ofschool construction in the 20-s of the twentieth century in the Far East with the aim of understanding the processes of creation of historical reality — the Soviet school — from the regional perspective in the genesis, involving, on the one hand, that organizational and reforming all-Russia ideological conceptual guidelines in education are implemented in the regions, providing them with social and cultural processes of regional transformations; on the other hand, that regional creative processes carried out in accordance with systematic and structured relationship with the “center” ensure formation of certain trends and provide the development of nationwide trends of a new Russian school formation on the principle of summative development [3]. The author of the article has demonstrated the conceptual character of the tasks set for schools (theoretical vision of the Soviet school by Marxist teachers, based on the idea of turning school into a tool of communist rebirth of society, specified in organizational settings, common for the entire territory of the Soviet Union) to establish the foundations of the Soviet school in the 20-s of the twentieth century on the principles of number, universal school enrollment, availability, and compulsion. The author analyzes school construction in the Far East in the 20-s of the twentieth century as a process of resolving contradictions between the conceptual organizational and reforming all-Russia ideological and regional conditions — the areas with weak development and infrastructural difficulty, inaccessible for a significant part of year, having extensive sparsely populated areas; and experiencing both the need for qualified teaching staff to realize educational tasks and “chronic shortage” of trained teachers. The author relates the creative processes to the processes of change, accompanied by contradictions, factors, transformational processes, trends, and assumptions as internal mechanisms for altering school reality, based on understanding, explanation, interpretation, and generalization. The author reveals that as a result of a focused set of practical measures for the implementation of settings, involving all Far East authorities, the trends towards a radical reorganization of the school system in the Far East, its transfer from one qualitative state of the early 20s of the XXth century, which evolved and got the sustainable development into another state, which it acquired at the end of the 20-s. of the XXth century according to the national all-Russia pattern: a set of level I schools, 7-, 9-, 10-year schools, the fundamentals of which were formed by schools being available, national, universal, and obligatory. Basing on the conducted analysis the author draws attention to the regional determiners that led to some signs of prerequisites for nationwide trends, which in the 30-s of the twentieth century initiated the changing directions in school policy that caused organizational and reforming actions to optimize the content of schooling, streamlining the organization of educational process, which stimulated its development until the end of the 80-s on the principles of unity and harmony of the educational system, the clarity of goals and educational objectives, service to life, beneficial character, and as a result — to the creation of the necessary conditions for the establishment in the shortest historical period of the most powerful educational potential, one of the most powerful education systems in the world [11].


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