Release:2017, Vol. 3. №3
About the authors:Mariya N. Kazantseva, Cand. Sci. (Biol.), Associate Professor, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Institute of Biology, University of Tyumen; Leading Researcher, Institute of the Problems of Northern Development, Federal Research Center, Tyumen Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; email@example.com
Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. — a representative of the modern East Siberian and Far Eastern dendroflora — is considered one of the most aggressive invasive species capable of altering the structural and functional characteristics of the original phytocenoses. This species is widely used in the gardening of Tyumen, from where it spreads to adjacent territories, becoming part of the plant communities of suburban forests.
The article analyzes the influence of apple trees on the most important physical indices of the biocenotic environment of forest ecosystems — illumination, relative humidity and air temperature, as well as related changes in phytocenoses. The research was carried out in the summer of 2017 on two sample plots, in pine forests of the green zone of Tyumen. The apple tree forms here a shrub layer with a crown density up to 65-90%.
It is shown that under the apple tree crowns a complex of abiotic factors is formed that differs from adjacent parts of the forest that are devoid of shrub vegetation. Especially sharply reduced illumination of space under the crowns (7-10 times); the air temperature decreases, the relative humidity increases. A consequence of this are structural rearrangements occurring in the lower tiers of the forest. Total projective cover of ground vegetation is reduced on different plots by 5-10 times. The taxonomic wealth of phytocenoses decreases; the number of species on the one of the sample plots decreased by 26%, on the another plot — more than twice. The composition of species is changing. The majority of meadow-forest species of plant that are characteristic of open and semi-open spaces disappear; the proportion of forest species is increasing. The role in the community of a group of weeds and ruderal plants, more eurytropic and resistant to changing environmental conditions, is increasing.