Release:2015, Vol. 1. №2(2)
About the authors:Igor S. Mukhachev, Dr. Si. (Biol.), Professor, Department of Zoology and Evolutional Ecology of Animals, Institute of Biology, University of Tyumen; firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract:Currently, one can observe the modernization of lake pasturable fish breeding in the Tyumen, Chelyabinsk, and Kurgan regions. The economic gist of modernization consists in the consecutive increase in the catch of grown-up fish. The commodity efficiency of lakes with the deficit of oxygen in the case of the introduction of innovative technologies increases from 20-30 to 160-200 kg/hectare a year, which, with a large-scale governmental approach, can significantly strengthen the food security of the region. For instance, the year 2008 saw the introduction of new technologies by the Sladkovsky commodity fish enterprise (Tyumen region). Previously, the catch by this enterprise only made 70-80 t, or on average less than 10 kg/hectare, per 11 thousand hectares of the lakes of the type with diffitsity oxygen (as operated according to the traditional trade scheme). Seven years later, in 2014, the general catch of the grown-up fish (Coregonidae, the carp, the pike perch, the pike, herbivorous species) exceeded 1,1 thousand tons, on average 100 kg/hectare, or, including the nonmigratory crucian, 110 kg/hectare. The systematic development of intensive technologies of fish breeding is shown by the JSC Rybozavod Balyk of the Kunashaksky region of Chelyabinsk region, to which the 8 thousand hectares of lakes are assigned (40% of the lakes available in the area). Based on the introduction of the recommended technologies, the enterprise annually bred 130-140 kg/hectare on average, the maximum being 180-230 kg/hectare. The basis of the catch, or 70-75%, are made now by large fish of a two/three-year pasture, while previously the catch used to consist of the local low-value crucian and a small amount of commodity fingerlings of the Coregonidae. The breakthrough technologies involve the cultivation of the polyculture with ensuring aeration of water in the winter as well as the 2-3-fold loosening of ground deposits of lakes during the aestivo-autumnal time in order to accelerate the biotic functioning of the food chain of fish fodder, to the directed formation of food supply by large-scale settlement of the Gammarus. Thanks to the data of the interdisciplinary research on hydrochemistry, biogeochemistry, microbiology, biochemistry, hydrobiology, ichthyology, it is revealed that the processes of “recycling” and “microbic loop” in reservoirs create a sustainable development of bioproductional processes as consistent with the properties of the phenomenon of “sustaining”. The illustration is the case of lakes of the type with diffitsity oxygen. With the growth of productivity, the processes of circulation of organic substance in lakes are increasingly accelerated, which allows to include the dosed meliorative mechanisms into the natural system. Thanks to that, the self-maintenance of the production system may be attained at an optimum level of the fish-breeding process. The largest natural resource for commercial production of commodity fish is represented by the lakes of the Urals and Western Siberia. Within the West Siberian plain from the Urals to the Yenisei, the general water area of lakes makes 8,7 million hectares, of which about 1 million hectares are suitable for the introduction of intensive technologies of fish cultivation.
1. Braun, L. Facing Food Insecurity // State of World. 1994. A Worldwatch institute Report on Progress Toward a Sus-tainable Society. New York, London: W. W. Norton & Company. 1994. Pp. 177-197.
2. Domanitsky, A. P., Dubrovina, R. G., Isaev, A. I. Rivers and Lakes of USSR. A reference book. Leningrad. 1971. 104 p.
3. Mukhachev, I. S., Burdiyan, B. G., Kugayevskaya, L. V. Experience of fish rearing for sale in Tyumen lakes and nearby areas. Moscow: TsNIITEIRH. 1977. 100 p.
4. Muhachev, I. S., Gunin, A. P. A review of the production of cultivated whitefishes (Coregonus spp. ) in Ural and West Siberia // Archive for Hydrobiology. Special Issue: Advances in Lim-nology. 2002. № 57. Pp. 171-181.
5. Mukhachev, I. S., Slinkin, N. P. A Device for Loosening Bottom Sediments. — The invention patent registered in the Russian Federation № 2221104. 10 January 2004.
6. Mukhachev, I. S., Slinkin, N. P., Chudinov, N. B. New approaches to development of fish rearing for sale in Trans-Urals // Fish Farm. 2006. № 3. Pp. 59-63.
7. Slinkin, N. P., Mukhachev, I. S., Turukhanskikh, N. A. A Method for Aeration of Water, Concentration of Fish and Fishing. — The invention patent registered in the Russian Federation № 2286672. 10 November 2006.
8. Mukhachev, I. S. Report on the scientific research project (NIR) “A Complex Ekological and Fish Production Study of Lakes in Kurgan Region”. Tyumen: Tyumen State University. 2004. 207 p.
9. Shaposhnikov, V. V., Yelets, L. I. Monitoring of the total take of the native and grownup fish across Chelyabinsk region in 2008-2012 // Proceedings of the scientific conference “Problems and Prospects of Development of Fish Breeding in the Urals”, devoted to the 100th anniversary of creation of Arakulsky fish-breeding plant and development of a commodity cultivation of Coregonidae in Chelyabinsk region, September 26-27, 2013. Chelyabinsk: Tsentr Nauchnogo Sotrudnichestva. 2013. Pp. 58-67.
10. Mukhachev, I. S. Increase of fish capacity — a tendency of development of lake fish breeding in Trans-Urals // Fish Production, 2014. № 6. Pp. 49-54.
11. Bulion, V. V. Structure and function of miсrobial “loop” in plankton of lake ecosystems // Biology of Inland Waters. 2002. № 2. Pp. 5-14.
12. Bulion, V. V. Influence of primary production of plankton on fish capacity of natural reservoirs // Current State of Fish Breeding in the Urals and Prospects of Its Development. Yekaterinburg: UGGA. 2003. Pp. 67-70.
13. Kopylov, A. I., Kosolapov, D. B. Microbic “Loop” in Planktonic Communities of Marine and Fresh-Water Ecosystems. Izhevsk: Knigograd. 2011. 332 p.
14. Andreyeva, M. A. Lakes of Central Ural and South Ural. Chelyabinsk: Iuzhno-Ural’skoe knizhnoe izdatel’stvo, 1973. 270 p.
15. Martynova, M. V. Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Ground Deposits of Lakes and Reservoirs. Moscow: Nauka, 1984. 160 p.
16. Mizandrontsev, I. B. Chemical Processes in Ground Deposits of Water Reservoirs. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1990. 175 p.
17. Alimov, A. F. Elements of the Theory of Functioning of Water Ecosystems. Pbg.: Science. 2001. 147 p.
18. Mirkin, B. M., Naumov, L. G. A scenario of transition to sustainable development // Ecology and Life. 2002. № 5. Pp. 31-38;19. Mirkin, B. M., Haziyev, F. H., Haziakhmetov R. M. Sustaining Agrosystems: History, Concept, Constructive Approach. Pre-print. Ufa: Bash NTs UrO RAN, 1992. 36 p.
20. Yukhneva, V. S. Fish kill phenomena in lakes and measures of their prevention // Reporting session of the Council of State Scientific Research Institute of Lake and River Fish Farming (GosNIORKh) following the results of work of 1968: Abstracts. Leningrad. 1969. Pp. 94-96.
21. Yukhneva, V. S., Uvarov, V. I. Ground deposits and the oxygen mode of lakes // Abstracts of reports for a scientific conference “SibrybNIIproekt on Development of the Tyumen Fishery Complex”. Tyumen, 1975. Pp. 106-107.
22. Slinkin, N. P., Mukhachev, I. S. A Device for Loosening Bottom Sediments. — The useful model patent registered in the Russian Federation № 118322. 20 June 2012.
23. Glazatov, V. K. Cultivation of fish — the effective direction // Experience of Fish Rearing for Sale in Chelyabinsk Region. Chelyabinsk: Iuzhno-Ural’skoe knizhnoe izdatel’stvo, 1975. Pp. 3-13.
24. Mukhachev, I. S. Lake Fish Rearing for Sale. Saint-Petersburg: “Lan’”. 400 p.
25. Slinkin, N. P. New Methods of Intensification of Lake Fishery and Fish Breeding. Tyumen: TGSKhA, 2009. 151 p.