Release:2015, Vol. 1. №2(2)
About the authors:Igor S. Mukhachev, Dr. Si. (Biol.), Professor, Department of Zoology and Evolutional Ecology of Animals, Institute of Biology, University of Tyumen; email@example.com
Abstract:Currently, one can observe the modernization of lake pasturable fish breeding in the Tyumen, Chelyabinsk, and Kurgan regions. The economic gist of modernization consists in the consecutive increase in the catch of grown-up fish. The commodity efficiency of lakes with the deficit of oxygen in the case of the introduction of innovative technologies increases from 20-30 to 160-200 kg/hectare a year, which, with a large-scale governmental approach, can significantly strengthen the food security of the region. For instance, the year 2008 saw the introduction of new technologies by the Sladkovsky commodity fish enterprise (Tyumen region). Previously, the catch by this enterprise only made 70-80 t, or on average less than 10 kg/hectare, per 11 thousand hectares of the lakes of the type with diffitsity oxygen (as operated according to the traditional trade scheme). Seven years later, in 2014, the general catch of the grown-up fish (Coregonidae, the carp, the pike perch, the pike, herbivorous species) exceeded 1,1 thousand tons, on average 100 kg/hectare, or, including the nonmigratory crucian, 110 kg/hectare. The systematic development of intensive technologies of fish breeding is shown by the JSC Rybozavod Balyk of the Kunashaksky region of Chelyabinsk region, to which the 8 thousand hectares of lakes are assigned (40% of the lakes available in the area). Based on the introduction of the recommended technologies, the enterprise annually bred 130-140 kg/hectare on average, the maximum being 180-230 kg/hectare. The basis of the catch, or 70-75%, are made now by large fish of a two/three-year pasture, while previously the catch used to consist of the local low-value crucian and a small amount of commodity fingerlings of the Coregonidae. The breakthrough technologies involve the cultivation of the polyculture with ensuring aeration of water in the winter as well as the 2-3-fold loosening of ground deposits of lakes during the aestivo-autumnal time in order to accelerate the biotic functioning of the food chain of fish fodder, to the directed formation of food supply by large-scale settlement of the Gammarus. Thanks to the data of the interdisciplinary research on hydrochemistry, biogeochemistry, microbiology, biochemistry, hydrobiology, ichthyology, it is revealed that the processes of “recycling” and “microbic loop” in reservoirs create a sustainable development of bioproductional processes as consistent with the properties of the phenomenon of “sustaining”. The illustration is the case of lakes of the type with diffitsity oxygen. With the growth of productivity, the processes of circulation of organic substance in lakes are increasingly accelerated, which allows to include the dosed meliorative mechanisms into the natural system. Thanks to that, the self-maintenance of the production system may be attained at an optimum level of the fish-breeding process. The largest natural resource for commercial production of commodity fish is represented by the lakes of the Urals and Western Siberia. Within the West Siberian plain from the Urals to the Yenisei, the general water area of lakes makes 8,7 million hectares, of which about 1 million hectares are suitable for the introduction of intensive technologies of fish cultivation.
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