Release:Bulletin of Tyumen State University. Earth sciences (№7; №4). 2014
About the author:Natalia А. Baluk, Dr. Hist. Sci., Professor, social and Сultural service and tourism Department, Institute of Mathematics, Science and Information Technologies, Tyumen State University
Abstract:The article presents the peculiarities of the formation of folk agronomics under the conditions of the risky agriculture zone in Northern Trans-Urals. The stages of vector expansion of Russian settlers towards east, north and south are studied. The results of adaptation of foreign agricultural experience and knowledge in terms of local practices, taking into account the specifics of the soil and climate, hydrology, and the landscapes of certain districts are considered as well. The process of formation of national agronomics experience is considered in the context of the overall process of agricultural development in the Mid-Irtysh region, including the counties of Verkhotursky and Tobolsk district — Verkhotursky, Tyumen,Tobolsk and Tara. Here the supporting agricultural cluster including stationary settlements (agricultural settlements, one-farm villages of cottagers and state farmersthose who paid rent (obrok) and seasonal tillage of landowning servicemen) began to form since 1623. Along with the development of shifting agriculture and land rotation, which were in practice on public arable land with tithe on it, the research dwells upon the formation of agricultural model on the «sobinnaya» (a peasant’s own) arable land, where a unique experience in national agronomics had been accumulated. To analyze the adaptation process of foreign agricultural practices, a unique source is being used: Kniga Hlebov, Pashen i Pokos (The Book of Corn, Ploughed Lands and Mowing), which had been kept by a Tobolsk peasant A. D. Nikitin for 56 years since 1846. Based on this book, an attempt was taken to reveal the peculiarities of agricultural traditions that emerged under the conditions of «transitional» natural-climatic zone bordering upon North Trans-Urals. The analysis of the peasant’s annual notes allows to identify the structure of the crop rotation system, crop yield dynamics, formation of local agrotechnology which was constructed considering the location of each farmed plot of land for growing cereal crops, general land-use practice, organization of work in the fields and harvesting. In general, the article specifies the experience of folk agronomics prevailing in the peasant arable farming under the conditions of Northern Trans-Urals by the end of the 19th century.
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