Release:Bulletin of Tyumen State University. Earth sciences (№7; №4). 2013
About the authors:Mikhail N. Gusev, Cand. Geogr. Sci., Associate Professor, Head of laboratory, Institute of Geology and Nature Management FEB RAS
Abstract:The Amur River is the largest water-stream in the North East Eurasia. The state border between Russia and China runs along its channel. But the river activity has been studied incompletely. It is very important to understand the formation peculiarities of the youngest part of the river valley — geomorphological system “River Valley Bottom” (RVB) as well as its channel as the most dynamic element. The paper is aimed at the study of the vertical channel deformations of the Amur River in the Holocene at the section of its middle reaches from the Zeya River to Khingan Gorge extending for 410 km. The main attention is paid to the study of conditions of the river valley formation, lithology structure of RVB, morphological and morphometric parameters of the of the water-stream longitudinal profile. It is established that the Amur River (from the Zeya River mouth to Khingan Gorge) is being formed under extremely uneven geological and structural and also very changeable geodynamic conditions. These conditions mainly determine the features of the structure and dynamics of the RVB and its channel. Basing on the analysis of the water-stream longitudinal profile and its comparison with the calculated “graded longitudinal profile” as well as on the analysis of the BRV lithological structure data (composition, thickness alluvium, distribution of flood-plain and channel alluvial facies) it is established that the vertical deformations of the Amur River in the Holocene are of directional character. The water-stream incises into the underlying rocks with the mean velocity of 0.9-1.1 mm per year. Maximum incises intensity is characteristic of the river at the section of Khingan Gorge and its magnitude is comparable (about 2 mm per year) with the velocity of Khingan Range elevation.
1. Antropovskij, V.I. Morphology and deformation of the Middle Amur riverbed. Geografija i prirodnye resursy — Geography and Natural Resources. 1996. № 3. P. 93–103 (in Russian).
2. Ivanov, V.V., Mahinov, A.N., Chalov, R.S., Chernov, A.V. Vertical channel deformations in the Middle Amur. Vestnik MGU — Moscow State University Vestnik. Ser. 5. Geography. 2000. № 5. P. 32–37 (in Russian).
3. Mahinov, A.N., Chalov, R.S., Chernov, A.N. Offshore motion of sediments in the Middle Amur. Geomorfologija — Geomorhology. 2001. № 2. P. 72–81 (in Russian).
4. Ivanov, V.V., Zavadskij, A.S. Channel processes in the Amur marginal area. Vestnik MGU — Moscow State University Vestnik. 2012. № 4. P. 50-56 (in Russian).
5. Ufimcev, G.F. Tektonicheskij analiz rel'efa (na primere Vostoka SSSR) [Relief tectonic analysis (on the basis of East in USSR)]. Novosibirsk: Nauka. Siberian Branch, 1984. 183 p. (in Russian).
6. Zhukovskij, S.Ja., Podkaminer, O.S. Preliminary engineering-geological zoning of the Middle Amur valley in connection with field investigations in the Upper Amur. Voprosy inzhenernoj geologii Verhnego Amura — Problems of engineering geology in the Upper Amur. М.: Lomonosov Moscow State University Publ., 1962. P. 164-172 (in Russian).
7. Karta sovremennyh vertikal'nyh dvizhenij po geodezicheskim dannym na territorii SSSR (SVDZVK) [Map of modern vertical movements with geodetic data on the USSR territory] L.A. Kashin. М.: State Department of Geodesy and Cartography, 1989. 4 p. (in Russian).
8. Miroshnichenko, A.I., Sorokin, A.P., San'kov, V.A. and others. Space geodesy in the tasks of geodymamics: present-day motion in Zeya-Bureya Basin. Tihookeanskaja geologija — The Pacific Ocean Geology. 2008. № 1. P. 71–80 (in Russian).
9. San'kov, V.A., Luhnev, A.V., Miroshnichenko, A.I. and others. Space geodesy in the tasks of geodymamics: present-day motion in Zeya-Bureya Basin. DAN — DAN. 2003. V. 389. № 1. P. 100–103 (in Russian).
10. Kuzmenko, S.P. Gosudarstvennaja geologicheskaja karta SSSR m-ba 1:200000. Ser. Amuro-Zejskaja [State geologic map of the USSR on a scale of 1:200000. Ser. Amur-Zeya]. Page М-52-XIV: Explanatory note. М.: USSR Ministry of geology, 1983. 82 p. (in Russian).
11. Gusev, M.N., Pomiguev, Ju.V. Channel activity of main rivers in the Amur Region in the conditions of modern economic management. Geografija i prirodnye resursy — Geography and natural resources. 2008. № 2. P. 45-50 (in Russian).
12. Shancer, E.V. Alluvion of lowland river in temperate zone and its role in the perception of structure and alluvial measures formation regularities. Tr. GIN AN SSSR — Institute of Geological Research, Academy of Science, USSR. 1951. Issue 135. Geology (№ 55). 274 p. (in Russian).
13. Lamakin, V.V. On residual river and other residual superficial deposit. Izvestija AN SSSR— Academy of Science Izvestiya, USSR. Geology. 1943. № 2. P. 79–87 (in Russian).
14. Kostomaha, V.A. Experimental rate calculation of relief forming processes at the late stages of Quaternary for Amur-Zeya lowland. Zemnaja poverhnost', jarusnyj rel'ef i skorost' rel'efoobrazovanija. M-ly Irkutsk. geomorfol. seminara) [Earth surface, multilevel relief and the rate of relief forming. Works of Irkutsk geomorphologic seminar] (Irkutsk, September 9–14, 2007). Irkutsk: Institute of Earth Crust, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Science, 2007.
P. 126–127 (in Russian).
15. Makkaveev, N.I. Ruslo reki i jerozija v ee bassejne [Riverbed and erosion in its basin]. М.: Academy of Science Publishing. 1955. 346 p. (in Russian).
16. Chalov, R.S. Ruslovedenie: teorija, geografija, praktika / Ruslovye processy: faktory, mehanizmy, formy projavlenija i uslovija formirovanija rechnyh rusel [Riverbed studies: theory, geography, practice / Channel processes: factors, mechanisms, ways of manifestation and conditions for riverbeds formation]. М.: LKI, 2008. Vol. 1. 608 p. (in Russian).
17. Makkaveev, N.I., Chalov, R.S. Ruslovye processy [Channel processes]. М.: Moscow State University Publ., 1986 (in Russian).
18. Sovmestnaja rossijsko-kitajskaja shema kompleksnogo ispol'zovanija vodnyh resursov pogranichnyh uchastkov rek Argun' i Amur [Joint Russian-Chinese scheme of complex use of water resources in marginal areas of Argun River and Amur River]. Moscow— Zhen Huan Zhuan: Sovintervod, Sunlyaokomvodhoz, 1998. Vol. 5. Climate and hydrology. 227 p. (in Russian).
19. Resursy poverhnostnyh vod SSSR [Resources of surface waters in the USSR]. Leningrad: Hydrometeoizdat, 1966. Vol. 18. Far East. Issue 1: Upper and Middle Amur. 781 p. (in Russian).
20. Lishnevskij, Je.N. On the structure of basement surface in Low-Zeya cavity. Geotektonika — Geotectonics. 1968. № 5. P. 62–71 (in Russian).
21. Korchagin, F.G. Geodynamics of Amur geological unit. Problemy geodinamiki i prognoza zemletrjasenij. I rossijsko-japonskij seminar (Problems of geodynamics and earthquake forecast. First Russian-Japan seminar (Khabarovsk, September, 26–29, 2000)). Khabarovsk: FEB RAS, 2001. P. 18–39. (in Russian).
22. Voskresenskij, S.S., Voskresenskij, K.S. Generated river longitudinal profile (slopes as watercourse function). Geomorfologija — Geomorphology. №1. P. 14-22 (in Russian).